Freight containers occupy an important place in trade and logistics activities, as without them it is impossible to transport goods. Transport containers are designed for cargo transportation of various sizes, both for the transportation of groupage cargo (LCL delivery), and for large consignments of cargo in land and marine conditions. Freight containers differ in types, sizes and design features, depending on the cargo and the way they are moved. Let’s consider what types of containers exist for cargo transportation and how they differ from each other.
Types and sizes of sea containers.
To carry goods by sea, containers of various capacities from corten steel, which are not sensitive to weather conditions, are used. Such containers carry the non-perishable products and large-sized cargoes, for example, motorcycles from Japan to Odessa are transported by dry vans. The optimal and most common dimensions of sea container are 20 and 40 foot. Containers of 10 and 45 foot are used less frequent due to the non-standard.
Types of freight containers for maritime transport:
- Standart (Dry Van, General Purpose) – universal sea containers for the transportation of any cargo.
- High Cube (HC) – container with one foot extra height in relation to standard types of containers. It is suitable for transportation of any kind of cargo, usually non-standard sizes.
- Pallet Wide (PW). This type of container has a wider base in relation to the standard size. Designed for transportation of goods placed on pallets. Due to its increased width, it can hold 2 pallets of 120 cm.
- Open-Top (OT). The container has an open top and a tarpaulin roof. Such container is suitable for transporting goods that do not fit in height into other containers.
- Hard-Top (HT). Equipped with an opening metal roof, which makes it possible to load from the top (in the case when a crane is used for loading). It is suitable for transporting oversized cargo and complex structures, such as industrial equipment.
- Upgraded (UP). It differs in increased carrying capacity, which is achieved due to the reinforced strength of the base.
- Flat Rack (FR) and Platform (PL) – platform-type containers. They represent an open platform designed for the transportation of “super-heavy” oversized cargo, for example: special equipment, heavy industry products, building materials (concrete blocks).
Types and sizes of sea containers
All of the above types of shipping containers are available in sizes 20 and 40 foot. The size of a 20-foot sea container may differ depending on the type of container:
- Standard. The container provides moisture and dust protection, suitable for both transportation and long-term storage of goods. The cargo is placed inside the container through a wide door at the end. 20-ft containers hold cargo volume up to 34 cubic meters, maximum load is up to 22 tons. The weight of the container is 2 tons.
- Platform. They are characterized by the absence of side walls and a roof; the containers are provided with only walls at the end to support and protect cargo, so there is no lateral load on the container. This design makes it possible to load bulky cargo and makes any kind of loading and unloading convenient. The container capacity is up to 28 cubic meters, maximum loading is 27.5 tons. Despite the absence of side walls, the tare weight is more
than the standard – 2.9 tons.
- Open. Containers with removable hard or soft roofs allow the oversized cargo to be loaded vertically through the roof, making it easy to load with a crane. The container weighs 2.4 tons, holds up to 32 cubic meters of cargo, provides a maximum load of 22.5 tons.
- Reefer. This type of container is equipped with special control equipment, which allows you to provide and maintain a certain temperature regime during transportation. The volume of containers is small – 28 cubic meters; it withstands a load up to 24 tons with a tared weight of 3 tons. Usually perishable food is transported in such containers.
- 40-ft containers are no less in demand for maritime dry cargo and other transportation than 20ft containers. They have a larger capacity, which allows you to transport larger cargo and large consignments of goods. The dimensions of a 40 ft container also differ depending on the type:
- Standard. The container is suitable for moving bulky goods. It provides a large capacity with a volume of 67.7 cubic meters and loading 26.5 tons with a tared weight of 3.9 tons.
- Open. An open top 40-foot container holds a cargo volume of 66.7 cubic meters with a maximum load of 31.7 tons. The weight of a container is almost 2 times more than a 20-foot container – 4.4 tons.
- Platform container. The length of a 40-foot flat rack container is 12 meters with standard width and height, the weight of the container is more than those listed above – 5.5 tons. The container has a cargo capacity of 54.8 cubic meters and a maximum load of 39.4 tons.
- Reefer. A 40-foot temperature-controlled container is capable of holding a cargo volume of up to 60.2 cubic meters and withstand a maximum load of up to 26 tons. Such a container is often used as a refrigerated warehouse for storing and transporting large quantities of products with a limited shelf life. Reefer container weight is 3.7 tons.
- High cube container. The High Cube container has an increased height and lifting capacity of over 30 tons. The container can hold up to 76.4 cubic meters of cargo, while weighing less than many 40-foot containers – 4.1 tons.
- High cube reefer container . Such a container has an additional capacity of up to 5 thousand kg and is 66.1 cubic meters. The container also maintains various temperature conditions – cooling, freezing, heating. The weight of the container is 4.2 tons.
Cargo tank container and its types
Tank-containers, which are a tank for the transporting various liquids and liquefied gases, play an important role in logistics. The capacity of such tanks varies from 26 to 35 cubic meters. Steam heating or thermal insulation is sometimes provided to maintain the temperature of the transported liquid. Cargo tank-containers are of several types:
- IMO0. Designed for transportation of food liquid cargo such as milk, juices, mineral water.
The capacity of tanks is 20-30 thousand liters, and the thickness of the walls is within 2
- IMO1. Designed for the transportation of dangerous goods (flammable and oxidizing materials, aggressive and toxic substances, other dangerous liquids). They are tanks from 14 to 30 thousand liters, the thickness of the walls of the container reaches 8 mm.
- IMO2. Used for transportation of non-hazardous goods (substances with low toxicity and corrosive liquids). The capacity of the container is 21-30 thousand liters, the wall thickness is 3-4 mm.
- IMO5. They are used for the transportation of liquefied and compressed gas, as well as other flammable liquids with a working pressure in containers of more than 7 bar (pressure in other containers is from 2 to 6 bar).