Every day, between the countries located in Europe and Asia, cargo is transported in huge volumes.
Different types of transport are used to solve these problems. Matitime transportation is popular because of its cheapness and availability. Therefore, the delivery of various cargoes – oil, grain, gas and others – is organized by water. Equipment, construction equipment, agricultural implements are transported in the same way. Different types of ships can be used to solve specific problems.
Classification of marine vehicles
In practice, the following types of vessels are distinguished:
- highly specialized transport (it provides delivery of a specific type of cargo);
- specialized ships (they involve the supply of several categories of cargo, but their number is small);
- ships of double specialization (vehicles designed for the transportation of goods of various categories);
- multi-purpose vessels (they are engaged in the transportation of goods belonging to various categories, there is the possibility of transshipment using the vertical and horizontal method);
- universal vessels (they do not have a specific specialization and carry all types of cargo).
This is the main classification of marine vessels, but there are some other directions.
Purpose and use of marine vessels
On this basis, the vessels are divided into several groups. Civilian machinery can be industrial, transport and technical. Objects of the first category are subdivided into passenger, cargo and special. In turn, loading machinery can be liquid and bulk-carrier. In addition, there are other classifications that characterize the area of navigation of ships, category of their engine, capacity of the vessel, etc.
General purpose cargo vessel
They are the most widespread and are intended for the delivery of general cargo, as well as oversized and heavy goods. Their systems include cranes and bums for efficient handling. At the same time, the packing of cargo units can be organized in various ways, for example, using boxes, bales, barrels, etc.
Bulk carriers have two decks and impressive cargo holds. They account for the largest part of the body. Cranes with a lifting capacity of about 200 tons are used for loading. Modern devices of this type have a refrigerated compartment in which goods requiring certain temperature conditions are transported.
Considering the types of ships, you should pay attention to this group. The equipment presented in this category make it possible to transport homogeneous cargo and includes container, reefer vessels, lumber carriers, cattleships, bulk carriers, RO ships, etc.
Reefer vessels are required to transport products – vegetables, fruits and meat, as well as semi-finished products. They generally have a carrying capacity of up to 12 thousand tons. Their cargo holds are equipped with special installations to provide a certain temperature regime. Based on the client’s requirements, holds are maintained in the range of +6 to -20 degrees Celsius.
There are reefer sea vessels with powerful refrigeration units. They help to obtain the right temperature and freeze the goods instantly. Some vessels that transport fruits and vegetables have built-in ventilation systems in their cargo holds.
Container carriers are required to transport goods that are packed in containers of the ISO standard type. These types of marine vessels have a length in the range of 80-400 m, and their carrying capacity is 8-20 thousand tons. The capacity is up to 18 thousand containers. These devices work mostly automatically, so 10-14 people are enough in a crew.
There are vertical guides in the hold, which simplify the process of loading goods and prevent them from shifting during rolling. After containers are in the holds, they are loaded onto the deck and fastened using special devices such as bars, chains and lanyards.
One of the types of container carriers is a light carrier – a type of vessel designed to transport barges. Its carrying capacity is up to 2000 tons, unloading is carried out on the water, and then towing to the berth. Light carriers are used in places where large ships cannot pass.
A demanded service is the delivery of a container.
RO ships have an alternative name “trailers” or “ro-ro”. They allow loading of equipment horizontally. They can be used to transport vehicles that are loaded by self-driving or tractors. The advantage of this type of device is its high loading speed.
Bulk carriers are designed for cargo transportation in bulk, if there is no container. They are used to transport grain, sand, ore, coal. The average carrying capacity is 150 thousand tons, the speed is low.
Lumber carriers, according to the classification of marine vessels, supply wood and swan lumber. Their design provides for reinforcement in the form of ice reinforcement.
The tanker allows the international maritime cargo transportation – quickly and efficiently. This is a common type of equipment that is irreplaceable in the process of transporting oil products and other bulk cargo.
The technique is a single-deck vessel with a carrying capacity of up to 400 thousand tons. Its upper deck contains a large number of pipes through which cargo flows in and out. As for the cargo tank, it has several partitions.
There is also a pump room that is used for unloading. The bottom is double as well as the sides. This is necessary for the transport of dangerous goods. Some units of this type are capable of transporting up to 5 bulk cargoes simultaneously.
Gas carriers as you might guessed from the name, carry gases. These include methane, ammonia, propane. Many ships are equipped with tanks in the form of spheres and cylinders, as well as pumps, pipelines, compressors in order to simplify the loading and unloading processes.
Sea ferries can be used for passengers and cars. They can also connect roads and railways. The main purpose of their use is to transport wagons, road trains and people. The carrying capacity of such transport is from 30 to 60 thousand tons. In order to allow the equipment to board the vessel, it is equipped with stern-ward and bow landing aprons, as well as with cargo doors on the sides.
The ferry may have several decks on which the wheeled vehicles move by elevator or ramps. There are also passenger compartments and entertainment areas. In total, such a ferry can carry about 150-200 cars and 900-1000 people. In turn, the railway device is capable of handling 50 wagons. It is common for vehicles to be unloaded using a mechanism of entry and exit through different gates.
Tug-boat or push towboat is an operating mechanism designed for self-geared and non-self-geared ships. The second mechanism, unlike the first, sets non-self-geared ships in motion.
Cattleships. They are a special kind of transport ships. This group includes, for example, “Stella Deneb” and “Becrux”. The first transport can transport about 22,000 head of cattle, and the second – 16,000 in one voyage. The second device has 9 decks for cattle, and the first has 6. It is delivered to the ship by road trains, which are also cattleships. Sometimes animals are transported by rail.
Cattleships are traditionally equipped with a powerful ventilation system that includes several dozen of functional devices. The feed is stored in a special compartment consisting of bunkers. They, in turn, bring food to the decks, and each of them gets cattle food into the many conveyors, which actually deliver it to the cattle.
Cargo delivery from China and from other countries is organized with the help of marine vessels. The demanded service is the chartering of vessels – the conclusion of a lease agreement, and it is possible to draw up an agreement for any type of water transport.